Adam Craig gets his position optimized at the REP Lab prior to the season
Cyclists want two very simple things. They want to be comfortable on their bike, and they want to be fast. And anytime we “want” something, we must ask the question – how hard must I work to achieve it? Or in this golden age of cycling, a lot of cyclists ask a different question – can I buy more speed? Well, let’s stop asking questions, and start producing some answers.
As a physical therapist, I can tell you that cycling takes its toll on the body. You do a fairly limited range of motion over and over and over again for thousands of miles a year. If things are lined up properly on the bike, and you are careful and follow a smart training program, you’ll maximize efficiency and prevent injury. When things are “off”, we wind up with imbalances that manifest themselves as injury. Injury is a whole other topic for a latter time. The other problem we wind up with is poor efficiency. Proper knowledge and equipment go a long way towards accomplishing a goal of optimal fit.
I’d like to summarize a paper that was published in a peer-reviewed, independent journal. Asker Jeukendrup and James Martin wrote “Improving Cycling Performance: How Should We Spend Our Time and Money”. The authors wanted to quantify the effects of various cycling factors to see which was most beneficial from both a time and cost standpoint. In this study they use simulated “models” to arrive at their predictions. Since they aren’t comparing apples to apples and oranges to oranges, the mathematical models allow them to base time gains on previously established research findings (from independent, peer-reviewed journals). Instead of just saying, “bike fit helps”, the authors sought to quantify exactly how much help a cyclist gets with a given alteration in their program. If you ride for Team Sky, you can skip the rest of this, as your cycling resources are unlimited. However, if you are a cyclist balancing riding, school, wife, kids, girlfriend, busted radiator, food, and time at the dog park – read along. They examined both Internal and External Factors as shown below:
Time Savings Observed in 40K TT
10-72 seconds (grade dependent)
19-25 seconds (rolling TT course)
5-13 seconds (rolling TT course)
You can see that the old adage holds true – there is no substitute for training. Period. Got it? Yes – you have to ride you bike. And you have to ride smart. Lots of base, properly periodized training plan, intervals, and a good taper all add up to good performance on race day. Aside from training, this article offers some interesting findings on where we should concentrate our efforts. Bike fit is key. It’s free speed. Faster with less effort and more biomechanically sound. It’s a win-win all around for the time and money you’ll invest and performance gained. Also – it’s a benefit that is there every time you get on your bike. You are always reaping the benefits of training in the most optimum position. It is very different then spending 1200 dollars on a pair of wheels you only get the benefit from 5 or 6 days a year.
At the REP Lab, we use a whole lot of technology, knowledge, first hand trial and error, experience, and common sense to achieve the most optimum fit for you – not a formula out of a book. A solid bike fit gets you a whole lot closer to achieving your optimum performance now.
I encourage you to check out the full article if you want more information:
Jeukendrup, A.E., and Martin, J. Improving Cycling Performance, How Should We Spend Our Time and Money? Sports Med; 31(7):559-569
Today, we’ve got a smattering of amazing educational opportunities to announce:
This Thursday in Bend, OR @ 7:30 at the Westside Clinic:Athletes – Please join Jay Dicharry PT (REP Biomechanics Lab Director) Matt Lieto (Pro Triathlete) and Keats McDougal (Ironman Canada & Tahoe Director) for a night of Mobility and Multi-sport discussion. Jay will provide the latest research on mobility and best practices for multisport athletes. We’ll answer the most common questions: What does stretching do for the body? When should you stretch? How long? What’s the difference between dynamic warm-up and stretching? And how does soft tissue work play into this whole discussion? Next, Matt will discuss his training plans and and upcoming race prep considerations. Matt will show you how the lessons he’s learned along the way can help you prepare better for your next event. Finally, Matt will lead a Q and A with Keats. They’ll provide an overview and considerations of these two challenging courses. It will help you prep for this year’s race, or feed your stoke for next year! Stick around after for a question and answer session with our panel. And yes, we’ll have beer. Cost: free. No brainer!
This weekend in Boulder Colorado (7/13-7/14):Calling all healthcare professionals – are you tired of getting your information on running mechanics from the mainstream media? Would you be interested in a immersive weekend of education that is based around hundreds of peer-reviewed articles, hands on clinical assessment, and gait cues? We’ll construct a framework of what we know about running mechanics and their effect on performance and economy. And more importantly, we’ll show you how this information applies not just to the masses, but to your individual patients. In short, this is all the stuff you wish they had told you in Med school, PT program, or ATC curriculum. There are still a few spots left. See here for details.
August 23-24th in San Jose:Tri-athletes and would-be coaches– are you looking to get your Level 1 certification? Then join us for the USA Triathlon coaching clinic. Two days packed full of essential knowledge to help you and your athletes succeed.
Sept 21st and 22nd in Bay Area:Running Coaches – this one is all for you. We are going to delve into the truth behind running mechanics, screening strategies for your team, the impact of strength training to improve performance, discuss the role of footwear, and more. Andrew Allden chairs this event – he’s brought in a knock out panel each and every time – Learn to think outside the box to take your team to the next level @ this USATF Level 3 Coaching Seminar. More info here
Yea, I know – blogging and tweeting is supposed to make us all smarter. But you know what really makes us smarter? talking face to face. See you soon!
There’s a good chance that you heard a friend say ” I sprain my ankles all the time”….or maybe you are the one saying this! Why do some people sprain, and then keep spraining their ankles over and over? Well, we recently published a study examining just this. This study was first-authored by one of our former grad students, Lisa Chinn, PhD, as part of her dissertation at the University of Virginia. While Lisa has moved on to a faculty position @ Kent State, she spearheaded this project. So, I thought I’d play “7 Questions with Dr. Chinn.”
I’ll briefly set the stage here. People with chronic ankle instability sprain, and keep spraining their ankles. There has been lots of attention paid to this area of research lately, because lots of sprains can cause lots of long term problems, and lead to lots of down time in training. Most of the research comparing the folks who keep spraining their ankles is done comparing walking and running barefoot. Yes, I know the barefoot movement is strong, but let’s face it – most people are wearing shoes, and despite what you’d like to think, barefoot gait is quite different than your gait in shoes (and it’s NOT just rearfoot vs forefoot folks….) Given the following, we thought that we’d examine the different ways people walk and run when they have healthy ankles, “single-sprain” ankles, or “chronic ankle instability” ankles. This got slightly technical at times, but I tried to summarize things towards the end. Since about 30-60% of you will have this issue, let’s ask Dr Chinn some Q’s:
1. What is chronic ankle instability, and how does this differ from people who have only had one sprain?
Chronic ankle instability (CAI), interestingly enough, is a very difficult (sometimes frustrating) syndrome to define. There is an ongoing discussion for a common description of CAI; however as of now, there is not a universally accepted definition. Some researchers rely purely on subjective reporting of symptoms by patients, while others, require some type of mechanical dysfunction to be present at the ankle joint, while still others desire a history of multiple ankle sprains. And of course, there are some who use any combination of the three. The majority of researchers (myself included) will described CAI as the long-term feelings of your ankle giving way or weakness following an initial ankle sprain. This can occur as a result of a single ankle sprain or from an accumulation of multiple sprains. Many subjects/patients claim to “tweak” their ankles all the time. It is estimated that about 30-60% of individuals that sustain an initial lateral ankle sprain will develop CAI.
There is a group of individuals who sprain their ankle once and who do not go on to develop CAI; researchers are currently using the term “coper” to describe these individuals. Research is relatively new on this population. What about them results in a full recovery from their ankle sprain? Was the sprain different or was something regarding their rehabilitation different? Are there other characteristics of these individuals that reduce their feeling of instability? Or, have they changed their lifestyle to not put themselves at risk for “tweaking” their ankle? This is a very exciting area of research because, our goal as a clinician is to prevent CAI from occurring and since we probably won’t ever figure out how to actually prevent ankle sprains from happening; we would like to determine how to get all ankle sprainers to become copers.
2. Why did you choose this topic to research?
I am an Athletic Trainer by profession. While working with various sports, at various levels, and multiple age groups one injury I always encountered were ankle sprains. No matter who you are, there is a risk of suffering an ankle sprain. With my background in athletic training and my exposure to the injury, when I decided to go to the University of Virginia for my doctorate I decided that I wanted to focus my research on ankle sprains and ankle instability. Being at UVA gave me access to prominent ankle researchers and an unbelievable motion analysis laboratory which I took advantage of.
This particular study was developed as a progression from a previous study conducted at the lab. A couple of years prior to my arrival to UVA, Lindsay Drewes (now Lindsay Sauer) and Patrick McKeon, conducted a similar study in CAI subjects, however, their data was collected while subjects were barefoot (Drewes et al., 2009; Drewes, McKeon, Kerrigan, & Hertel, 2009). Their studies reported some interesting findings; however asking individuals to perform barefoot tasks is novel, so I wanted to replicate the study while subjects were shod (shod means in shoes), a more common/comfortable condition.
3. What did you find?
The short answer: we found that while shod, gait kinematics are different between those with and without CAI. (note: kinematics is a fancy word for range of motion)
Interestingly, unlike previous gait research on CAI subjects, we did not find kinematic differences just prior to, at, or immediately following initial contact. I think adding shoes to our methods has revealed altered kinematics that barefoot methods had not previously done. Our kinematic differences occurred towards terminal stance as well as during swing. One thing to note is; no one really understands when ankle sprains occur, it has been hypothesized that they may occur either at initial contact OR terminal stance (Konradsen & Voigt 2002). However the majority of research has only focused on initial contact. Our study actually evaluated the entire gait cycle finding difference at terminal stance is very new and original. Hopefully this will encourage more researchers to evaluate the later stages of gait in the future.
4. Given that the previous research was using people walking/running barefoot, what do you think adding shoes into the equation helps?
Adding shoes to the research has added a piece to the mysterious CAI puzzle. Before I discuss what shoes added, let me explain a little about the shoes we used. We were able to obtain multiple pairs (both men and women sizes) of Brook Defyance shoes. Collaborating closely with Brooks, we were able to remove various aspects of the shoe to enable us to place anatomical markers on a subject’s skin without disrupting the integrity of the shoe. Placing markers on the skin allowed us to better observe joint kinematics. Placing markers on top of shoes (which has been done in the past) only allows researchers to observe what the shoe is doing. Shoes may slip or move differently than the joint. Our goal was to see what each individual’s limb was doing, which with this custom shoe we were able to do.
So, getting back to your question, I believe incorporating shoes, specifically our custom shoes, has significantly contributed the CAI literature. Previous research has shown that there are kinematic differences and muscle activation differences between running barefoot and shod (Kerr et al 2009, De Wit et al 2000, Burkett et al 1985). If anyone has ever tried to go and run barefoot (outside or on a treadmill) without weeks of acclimation, your feet hurt and your gait naturally changes in order to adequately absorb forces. The majority of previous CAI literature asked their subjects to perform this novel task of running barefoot. Knowing that gait changes, we are unsure if their findings are due to the task or due to CAI or both. Allowing our subjects to wear shoes, we were able to capture a more natural gait stride. Secondly, plantar stimulation has been shown to affect CAI subjects differently than healthy controls. Placing shoes on our subjects may have provided some stimulation that barefoot gait does not. Plus, being an athletic trainer, I always want to try to mimic what athletes do and there are not many sports that train or compete barefoot.
5. Can you make any recommendations based on this study?
I think the most important recommendation I have for clinicians and athletes is not to shrug an ankle sprain off as “just” an ankle sprain. This study as well as the majority of CAI literature shows that individuals with CAI have both local and global alterations compared to healthy controls. We also know that CAI has been linked to osteoarthritis. This study specifically shows that gait changes can be observed. After suffering from an ankle sprain and those who have CAI should evaluate their rehabilitation and not hurry back to activity. Therapists can incorporate gait re-training exercises into rehabilitation.
6. What questions remain unanswered about the effects of CAI on athletes?
Oh so many! As any researcher will tell you, as we answer one question it seems like 10 more pop up. I touched upon this previously, but I think the three most important unanswered questions pertaining to CAI are, 1) What causes it? 2) Can we prevent it? and, 3) How do we best treat it? I know these are three very broad questions, but it’s what all CAI researchers are striving to determine.
7. Describe your new career/research interest for us?
Since leaving UVA about a year ago and starting here at Kent State University, my overall research focus has not changed; I still want to better understand CAI and determine how to prevent CAI. However, because I do not have access to a state-of-the-art motion analysis lab my methods are shifting a bit. Neuromuscular control, balance, and proprioception are, in my opinion, the keys to ankle sprain rehabilitation. I am implementing various interventions on individuals with CAI in hopes to determine the most effective way to treat this syndrome.
So…..for those of you wanting a simple summary. Here it is. People who keep spraining their ankles walk and run different from those who don’t sprain frequently. While some of you may say “who cares” – this is pretty important stuff. You see, all the gait research out there says something pretty simple. Variability is good. Its good to have slightly different ways to move. This way, when you get into “interesting situations” (like when you plant your foot slightly wrong) you have a skill set in place to correct your ankle position and save your body from injury. But this study shows that the pattern of people with CAI is different. And since these people keep spraining, one could say this compensated pattern really isn’t working….and is likely a big contributing factor to their ongoing issues.
From the clinical side, its a good idea to improve the stability of your foot and ankle. Strong muscles inside the feet means less stress to the joint and better proprioception for faster stability, which both reduce injury risk. Want some more? Check out foot some specific foot strengthening exercises in my book, and on this video below (right about 3:22).
Lastly, I’d like to say thanks to Lisa for all her work on this project, and thanks to Brooks for supplying shoes, and helping to ensure that the modifications we made to the study shoes to get 3D markers on the foot did not alter the function of the shoe during walking and running. If you’d like to contact Dr Chinn for additional questions, feel free to contact her below.
Lisa Chinn, PhD, AT. Assistant Professor in Athletic Training, Kent State University, Room 266D MACC Annex,Kent, OH 44242 – firstname.lastname@example.org
Revolution, not evolution. The latest innovation for your feet is not from the behemoth with swoosh. Its not from the company who brought you “those funny toe shoes.” Instead, this latest venture was announced last night on prime time television.
Its innovative “dual-purpose outsole” has a unique feature to help you out of a certain situation that always seems to come on about 1 mile into your run. Run prepared! If you’d like learn more, check out the video below.
What can a new research study tell you about running off-the-bike? Sometimes, research just tells us things that are somewhat interesting. And other times, like this one, research provides a very nice take home message of which we should all take note.
Now those of you who have seen me for an evaluation, read my Running Times article called “P is for Posture”, or read my book know that this is the un-sung skill that can make or break you as an athlete. Posture is the foundation around which the most powerful muscles in your body attach. If the position of those muscles is optimal, a number of things go really well…..most notably peaked performance, and a better stabilized chassis for a reduced risk of injury. If this optimal position is compromised, then you aren’t operating at your best.
So, if I told you ahead of time that doing “A” before “B” will produce complications that make “B” harder, you’d (hopefully) try to prepare ahead of time to minimize, or eliminate those complications. Right? …. Well, here’s what happens.
We had a group of triatheltes come into our lab and run. We measured a number of factors related to the way they ran to get a baseline. This same group of runners came back a second time, but before they ran, they cycled for 30 min at a just-easier-than-threshold effort. Their post-bike running data showed that they had more arch in the low back, a more anteriorly-tilted pelvis, a more flexed hip, and less hip extension.
poor position = poor performance
For those of you wondering if this is good or bad, I’ll give you both the simple and more in-depth version. Running off the bike makes you look more like the person on the left than the person on the right.
I simply cannot downplay the significance postural alignment. If you screw this up, you’ll screw up your run. And given that 70% of injuries in triathlon occur in the run, this is yet one more contributing factor.
Cycling doesn’t “hurt us” – then why do we see postural shifts occur in triathlon? You are bent over in a forward position. Some tissues get bound up. Others get lengthened. And we only did this for a 30 min ride. What happens if you force this constrianed position for 5 hrs, and then go run? We don’t know for sure (because we didn’t test this) but if I was a betting man, I think we’d see the same patterns, but somewhat worse. To be fair, we only looked at their running data for the first 14 min of the run. Maybe posture improves after this 14 min. Maybe it stays the same. Maybe it gets worse. We didn’t test it. But no one wants two slow or injury-prone miles out of T2. And due to the fact that central fatigue typically makes our posture worse, I’d think this is something we should all pay attention to.
So here’s your chance to beat the odds, and be “smarter” than the average. Here’s your mission for today:
Find correct posture standing right now (see above references)
Hold correct posture walking around your office or house.
Go for a run, maintain correct posture (and if you fall into the “back seat” stop and fix it!)
Go for a brick workout, and pay special attention to your postural alignment off the bike. If you focus on this in training, it will be easy to correct on race day.You should be able to run any pace – from an easy run to 400’s on the track – without compromising your posture alignment.
I’d like to thank our former grad student and first author, Nicole Rendos, for taking the lead on this study. And if you are looking for more ways to tune-up your triathlon training, come see us this August for our REP Triathlon Camp!
There’s no “one look” for every woman, and no “one body” for every athlete
Ladies – tonight its all about you!
Sports Illustrated ran a photo series years ago that is one of the most powerful collection athleticism. Athletes come in all shapes and sizes, and one of them is YOUR size. And that’s the point of tonight’s talk. As the kick off to the REP Lecture series tonight in Bend, we are going to discuss “the unique needs of a woman.”
We’ll take a look beyond the marketing drivel and discuss what really is unique about your needs in pursuit of your goals. Come grab a seat and a beer, and find some tips that take you to the next level. Hope to see you 7:00 tonight at Rebound Westside!
Instead of getting caught up in the latest fads, always make sure each workout is contributing to your long term goals.
I was in the airport yesterday and starring at the news stand. Every single issue has some variation of “the 5 workouts you must do this month” plastered across the cover. There are lots of great workouts out there, but only you can identify who you want to be.
Its pretty easy to work backwards. Define your goal, and ensure that each day’s heart beats, muscle contractions, nutrition intake, and rest schedules are target focused on that goal. Because we both want the same thing: for you to be able to cross your next challenge off your list.
Today in PT is a magazine for the physical therapy profession. They wrote:
Americans are increasingly on the run, with Running USA’s 2012 State of the Sport report counting nearly 39 million runners. Runners spend nearly $2.5 billion annually on footwear, according to the report. But, unfortunately, new shoes don’t come with accurate information and proper training to safely and successfully pursue the activity. For that, Today in PT turned to Jay Dicharry, PT, MPT, SCS, author of “Anatomy for Runners: Unlocking Your Athletic Potential for Health, Speed, and Injury Prevention.” click here for the rest
They threw out 10 questions, and i threw out 10 answers. Check out the link if you’d like to see some of the reasons why i do what I do, a few lines on the book, and why i got into this aspect of athletic injury care in the first place.